Modern History of Madhya Pradesh PDF Download

Modern History of Madhya Pradesh PDF Download: The modern history of Madhya Pradesh begins with the independence of India in 1947. The state was formed in 1950 from the former British Central Provinces and Berar and the princely states of Makrai and Chhattisgarh, with Nagpur as the capital. In 1956, the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were merged into Madhya Pradesh, and the Marathi-speaking southern region Vidharba, which included Nagpur, was ceded to Bombay state. Bhopal became the new capital of the state, and Ravishankar Shukla was elected as the first Chief Minister.

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The early years of Madhya Pradesh were marked by economic and social challenges. The state was largely agrarian, and the majority of the population lived in poverty. However, the state government made significant efforts to improve the lives of its people. It launched a number of schemes to promote education, healthcare, and agriculture. It also invested in infrastructure development, such as roads, railways, and irrigation projects.

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Modern History of Madhya Pradesh

In the 1960s and 1970s, Madhya Pradesh experienced a period of rapid economic growth. The state government invested heavily in industries such as steel, cement, and textiles. It also promoted the development of small-scale industries. As a result, the state’s economy grew at a faster rate than the national average.

The 1980s were a difficult time for Madhya Pradesh. The state was affected by the national economic crisis of the mid-1980s. In addition, the state was hit by a number of natural disasters, including floods and droughts. In 1984, the Bhopal disaster, one of the worst industrial accidents in history, occurred in the state capital. The disaster killed thousands of people and affected the lives of millions more.

Despite the challenges it faced, Madhya Pradesh continued to develop in the 1990s and 2000s. The state government focused on improving education, healthcare, and infrastructure. It also promoted the development of the tourism sector. In 2000, the southeastern Chhattisgarh region was designated a separate state.

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Today, Madhya Pradesh is one of the most developed states in India. It has a strong economy and a high standard of living. The state is also home to a number of historical and cultural attractions, such as the Khajuraho temples, the Sanchi Stupa, and the Gwalior Fort.

The modern history of Madhya Pradesh was largely dominated by East India Company and the British rule. Madhya Pradesh contributed significantly in the freedom struggle to drive Britishers out of the country and helped India in attaining independence.

After the death of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707 Mughal control began to weaken and the Marathas began to expand from their base in Central Maharashtra.

1720 to 1760 the Marathas took control of most of Madhya Pradesh and Maratha clans were established semi-autonomous states under the nominal control of the Maratha Peshwas.

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Maratha ruler Bajirao I divided the Maratha Empire into five territories, among which Indore and Gwalior state became the seat of Holkar and Scindia dynasty.

Holkar dynasty (1727-1947) was founded by Malhar Rao Holkar and Yashwant Rao Holkar III was the last ruler. Scindia dynasty (1761-1948) was founded by Ranoji Scindia and George Jewaji Rao Scindia was the last ruler.

Before 1857 there were many revolts in Madhya Pradesh. These were revolt by Bhonsle, revolt by Devnath Singh, revolt by Dillah Shah, etc.

In the Revolt of 1857 Madhya Pradesh played an important role. Places like Neemuch, Muraar, Garh Mandla, Shivpuri, Mhow, Sagar, Banapura, Shahgarh and Mandla joined in the revolt.

Madhya Pradesh also played significant role in Indian National Movement. The important national movements and incidents took place here included Seoni Satyagraha, Non-Cooperation Movement, Jabalpur Jhanda Satyagraha, Salt Satyagraha, Jungle Satyagraha, Charan Paduka Massacra, Bhopal Praja Mandal’s agitation, Individual Satyagraha, etc.

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After independence the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal were merged. Thus a new Madhya Pradesh state was created on 1st November, 1956.

Maratha Rule in Madhya Pradesh

The Maratha Empire dominated much of Indian subcontinent in 17th and 18th century. Maratha ruler Bajirao I divided the Maratha empire among five different territories for administrative convenience i.e. Indore, Gwalior, Dhar, Dewas, (Senior) and Dewas (Junior). All these territories were assigned to a particular Governor. In the state of Madhya Pradesh, there were two such territories i.e. Indore and Gwalior under Holkar and Scindia, respectively.

Indore State: Indore state was also known as Holkar state. It was a Maratha Princely State during British Raj. On 18th May, 1724, the Nizam accepted the rights of the Maratha Peshwa Bajirao I to collect Chauth (taxes) from the area. In 1733, the Peshwa assumed full control of Malwa and appointed his commander Malhar Rao Holkar as the Subedar (Governor) of the province.

The first Diwan of Holkar state as a British protectorate was Tatya Jog.

Gwalior State: Gwalior state was a Princely State during the British Raj. Marathas built this state taking opportunity from fragmentation in the Mughal Empire and lack of central authority from Delhi. It was ruled in Subsidiary Alliance with the British by the Scindia dynasty of the Marathas.

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The Gwalior state was important from the point of view of its strategic location and strength of its forts. The state was founded in the early 18th century by Ranoji Scindia, as part of the Maratha confederacy.

Holkar Dynasty (1727-1947)

This dynasty was founded by Malhar Rao Holkar in 1727 in Indore. The important rulers of this dynasty were as follows:

Malhar Rao He was assigned the rule of five groups of villages under Maratha Empire. He was the first Maratha Subedar of Malwa region. His supremacy established in 1730. He participated in the third Battle of Panipat. His position and state was better as compared to Scindias in Gwalior.

Malerao Holkar He became the king in 1766 but he enjoyed only one year of rule and died at an early age.

Devi Ahilya Bai (1766-97): She governed the territory after her son Malerao Holkar. Devi Ahilya Bai was a great devotee of lord Shiva. She established wells, shelters for travellers, temples for her subjects. She was very popular among her people due to her welfare activities. For worshipping, she created another capital Maheshwar (Khargone) apart from the main capital Rajwada (Indore).

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Yashwant Rao Holkar-III: He was the last ruler of Holkar dynasty. Holkar was the last Maratha power defeated by the Britishers in 1818. He signed the instrument of accession to the Indian Union on 1st January, 1950 and the Holkar state acceded to the union of state.

Scindia Dynasty (1761-1948)

This dynasty was founded by Ranoji Scindia. The important rulers of this dynasty were as follows:

Mahadji Scindia He was the greatest Scindia warrior who took part in the war of Panipat (III) 1761 against Ahmed Shah Abdali. He defeated Lokendra Singh Jat of Gwalior and captured the fort of Gwalior. He laid the foundation of Gwalior kingdom. He reinstated the wandering Mughal King Shah Alam II in Delhi in 1785 and controlled the king till 1803, when the Britishers captured Delhi for the first time.

Daulat Rao Scindia (1794-1827): In 1794 AD, Daulat Rao Scindia became the ruler of Scindia dynasty. In 1810 AD, he made Gwalior as the capital of Scindias. Earlier the capital of Scindias was Ujjain. After the death of Daulat Rao Scindia, his queen Beizabai controlled the throne until the adopted child, Jankoji Rao took over the charge.

Jankoji Rao (1827-1843): He took over the charge of Scindia Empire after Beizabai. After the death of Jankoji Rao, the Queen Tarabai took over the charge of empire and adopted a child named Jewaji Rao.

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George Jewaji Rao Scindia (1925-1948): He was the last king of Scindia Empire who acceded the empire to Government of India. He was appointed as Raj Pramukh on 18th May, 1948 for Central India.

The Revolt of 1857 and Madhya Pradesh

The first expression of organised resistance against the British was the Revolt of 1857. It began as a revolt of the sepoys of the company’s army but eventually secured the participation of the masses. Its causes lay deeply embedded in the grievances that all sections of Indian revolted against the British rule. The main causes of the revolt were social arrogance of the British and induction of Enfield rifles in the army, cartridge of which had fat of cow and pig.

Role of Madhya Pradesh in 1857 Revolt

In the Revolt of 1857, Madhya Pradesh played an important role. The following places have an important contribution in the revolt of 1857:

Neemuch On 3rd June, 1857, the first revolt in Madhya Pradesh was happened in Neemuch. Colonel Sobers with the help of Rajput soldiers suppressed this revolt. During the Revolt of 1857 the Scindias and the Nawab of Bhopal supported the Britishers.

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Muraar (Gwalior) on 14th June, 1857, soldiers of Muraar Cantonment revolted and destroyed all communication systems. Rani Laxmi Bai alongwtih Tantia Tope also revolted in Gwalior but with the help of Scindias, British suppressed the revolt.

Garh Mandla Shankar Shah and Raghunath Shah revolted in Garh Mandla.

Mhow: (Indore) In Mhow Cantonment, the revolt started under the leadership of Saadat Khan. The Britishers defeated and their officers migrated to Sehore. Begum Sikander of Bhopal state helped the British officers and provided shelter to them.

Mandsaur: Humayun came to Mandsaur from Delhi and established an independent state and ruled over Mandsaur with the title Firoz Shah.

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Sagar: The Sagar Cantonment, revolt happened under the leadership of Sheikh Ramzan.

Banapura and Shahgarh the revolt was also happened in Banapur and Shahgarh states by the kings of these states.

Shivpuri: On 20th June, 1857 the revolt started in Shivpuri. Rani Laxmibai and Tatya Tope fought against the Britishers from one place to another. The king of Narwar, Man Singh betrayed Tatya Tope and handed him over to the British. Tatya was hanged on 18th April, 1859 at Shivpuri. Rani Laxmibai died near Gwalior on 18th June, 1858.

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Mandla: In Mandla, Rani Avanti Bai of Ramgarh revolted against the British. Rani Avanti Bai was regarded as the Jhansi of Ramgarh. On 20th March, 1858 she was martyred as a result of defeat by British forces.

Mandaleshwar Military troops at Mandaleshwar revolted and killed British Captain Benjamin Hebbs.

Important National Movements in Madhya Pradesh

  • Lahore Session (1899)
  • Seoni Satyagraha (1916)
  • Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22)
  • Jabalpur Jhanda Satyagraha (1923)
  • Salt Satyagraha (1930)
  • Jungle Satyagraha (1930)
  • Charan Paduka Massacre (1931)
  • Bhopal State and Freedom Struggle
  • Individual Satyagraha (1940-41)
  • Quit India Movement (1942)

Prominent Freedom Fighters of Madhya Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh has produced many prominent freedom fighters who played a crucial role in the Indian independence movement. Some of the most notable include:

Rani Lakshmi Bai: Rani Lakshmi Bai was the queen of Jhansi who bravely fought against the British in the 1857 rebellion. She is considered to be one of the national symbols of India’s freedom struggle.

Tantya Tope: Tantya Tope was a military general who fought alongside Rani Lakshmi Bai in the 1857 rebellion. He was a brilliant strategist and tactician, and he played a key role in many of the British defeats during the rebellion.

Chandra Shekhar Azad: Chandra Shekhar Azad was a revolutionary freedom fighter who was known for his daring exploits. He was a member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA), and he participated in many attacks on British officials.

Ravishankar Shukla: Ravishankar Shukla was a prominent leader of the Indian National Congress in Madhya Pradesh. He was a close associate of Mahatma Gandhi, and he played a key role in organizing the Quit India Movement in the state.

Tantya Bhil: Tantya Bhil was a tribal leader who fought against the British for over a decade. He was known for his guerrilla warfare tactics, and he became a folk hero among the tribals of Madhya Pradesh.

Rani Avanti Bai: Rani Avanti Bai was the queen of Ramgarh State in Madhya Pradesh. She was a courageous leader who fought against the British in the 1857 rebellion. She is known for her bravery and sacrifice in the freedom struggle.

Jhalkari Bai: Jhalkari Bai was a warrior woman who fought alongside Rani Lakshmi Bai in the 1857 rebellion. She is known for her heroic deeds and her unwavering loyalty to Rani Lakshmi Bai.

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Product details:

Book NameHistory of Madhya Pradesh
Author NameTeam MYUPSC
Total Page50+
Useful ForMadhya Pradesh State Civil Services (MPPSC) and all other examinations
Product typeE-Book / PDF

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