Physiography of Haryana | Geographical Divisions of Haryana

Physiography of Haryana | Geographical Divisions of Haryana: The geographical structure of Haryana has been changing overtime. The present form of the state has come into existence as a result of the interaction of the endogenic and exogenic forces and horizontal structure of the plate.

The state of Haryana lies in the vast plains between the Ganga river system in the East and Indus river system in the West. Yamuna, a tributary of Ganga is the only major river flowing through the state. There are other small non–perennial rivers and lakes in the state.

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Location and Extent of Haryana

Haryana is located in the North-Western part of India and in the Southern part of the Indus plains (also known as Punjab plains).

  • The Indus-Ganga Plain surrounds most of the land area of the state.
  • It is located 300 miles away from the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern direction.
  • It is situated between 27°39′ to 30°55′ 55″ North latitude and 74°27′ 8″ to 77°36′ 5″ East longitude.
  • The total latitudinal and longitudinal extension of state is 3°16′ 5″ and 3°8′ 57″, respectively which expresses its shape.

It is a landlocked state. The state has a total area of 44,212sq km which is 1.34% of the country’s total area. In terms of area, it is the 21st largest state of India.

There are 22 districts in the state. Sirsa (4,277sq km) is the largest district of the state in the terms of area where as Faridabad (743 sq km) is the smallest district.

Read moreFormation of Haryana as a Separate State

Extend of Boundary of Haryana

Haryana shares its border with 5 States and 2 Union Territories, which are as follows:

—Himachal Pradesh lies in the North-East,

—Rajasthan in South-West,

—Uttar Pradesh, Delhi and Uttarakhand in East,

—Punjab and Chandigarh in North-West.

Delhi and Chandigarh are Union Territories. Haryana is surrounded by Delhi from three sides. Chandigarh is also the capital of Haryana. Haryana shares longest boundary with Rajasthan (about 1262 km) and shortest with Uttarakhand (about 12 km).

Read moreModern History of Haryana

The natural boundaries of the state include the Shivalik ranges in its North-East, the Aravali hills in the South, the Yamuna River in the East and the desert of Rajasthan in the South-West. River Yamuna demarcates boundary between Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. It flows towards the Eastern border of Haryana.

  • Nuh (Mewat) district shares border with Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Yamunanagar district shares border with three states namely, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Panchkula district shares border with two states namely, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh and one Union Territory i.e. Chandigarh
  • Jind district shares border with highest number of districts in Haryana. It shares borders with 7 districts i.e. Fatehabad, Hisar, Rohtak, Sonipat, Panipat, Karnal and Kaithal.
  • Rohtak and Charkhi Dadri are only districts of Haryana which do not share borders with any State or Union Territory. Rohtak district shares border with Jind, Hisar, Bhiwani, Charkhi Dadri, Jhajjar and Sonipat.
  • Mahendragarh district is surrounded by Rajasthan from three sides.
  • 14 districts (57% area of state) of Haryana are part of the National Capital Region.

Read moreMedieval History of Haryana

Divisions of Haryana on the Basis of Geographical Area

On the basis of geographical area, Haryana can be divided into three divisions. These are:

(i) Kurukshetra: It is situated between 28°30′ to 30° North Latitude and 76°21′ to 77°East Longitudes. Jind and Karnal are part of this division.

This area is quite important from the point of view of religion. Chautang River flows in this division and soil of Kurukshetra district is not sandy.

(ii) Haryana: It is situated between 29°30′ to 30° North Latitude. Fatehabad, Hansi, Hisar, Bhiwani and Rohtak districts lie in this division. This division is mainly inhabited by Jat people, thus, it is also called Jatiyaat area.

(iii) Bhattiana: This geographical division is situated between Fatehabad and Batu Tehsils. This division is dominated by the Bhati Rajputs from ancient time, thus, this area is known as Bhattiana.

Read more: Ancient History of Haryana

Physiography of Haryana

The physiography of state includes flat plains, hills etc. Among these, flat plains have highest percentage. Around 93.76% area of the state is covered by flat and undulating plains, which lies between Ghaggar and Yamuna rivers.

This plain area is also known as Ghaggar-Yamuna Plains. It is the largest physiographic region of the state. Around 68.21% and 25.55% area of this plain is flat and undulating, respectively. The average altitude of this plain is around 200 to 300m above sea level.

This plain has been formed due to deposition of sediments by the Himalayan River. Besides this plain stumps and mounds of sands are found on (6.24% area of the state). Remnants of Aravali hills cover 3.09% area of the state.

The altitude of Aravali hills is more than 300m above sea level. Mahendragarh, Rewari, Gurugram, Bhiwani, Charkhi Dadri, Palwal and Faridabad districts are hilly and rocky physiographic regions.

Shivalik hills are also found in the North-Eastern part of the state.

Read moreGeneral Studies of Haryana MCQs | Haryana GK Objective Question for HPSC Exams

Geographical Divisions of Haryana

On the basis of various geographical features, Haryana has been divided into eight geographic divisions. Dr Jasbeer Singh, prominent agricultural scientist of the state has also categorised Haryana into eight geographical divisions in his book An Agricultural Geography of Haryana. These geographical divisions are:

1. Shivalik

2. Piedmont Plains

3. Alluvial Plains

4. Flood Plains

5. Plains with Sand Dunes

6. Rocky Plains of Aravali Hills

8. Marshy Land

Read more: Geographical Structure of Haryana | Location and Extent of Haryana

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