People and Environment Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) For Assistant Professor, UGC NET, CTET, TGT, PGT and all other Teacher’s Recruitment Exams

People and Environment Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) For Assistant Professor, UGC NET, CTET, TGT, PGT and all other Teacher’s Recruitment Exams.

People and Environment

Environment: Environment can be defined in a number of ways. For example,

(1) “Environment is the sum of all social, economical, biological, physical or chemical factors which constitute the surroundings of man, who is both creator and moulder of his environment.’

(2) “Environment refers to the sum total of conditions which surround man at a given point in space and time.”

(3) “Environment is the representative of physical components of the earth wherein man is the important factor influencing his environment.”

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Components of Environment: Environment consists of the following three important components:

1. Abiotic or Non-living Component.

2. Biotic or Living Component

3. Energy Component

The abiotic or physical environment is sub-divided into three categories:

1. Lithosphere (Solid Earth)

2. Hydrosphere (Water Component)

3. Atmosphere (Gaseous Envelope)

People and Environment Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)

The biotic component of environment consists of flora and fauna, including man as the important factor. Abiotic and biotic components constitute together the Biome Environment.

The energy component includes solar energy, geochemical energy, thermo-electrical energy, hydro-electrical energy, nuclear atomic energy etc. Energy due to radiation and other sources also plays an important role to maintain the real life of organisms.

Factors Affecting Environments: Most of the ecologists recognise four categories of ecological factors which affect the environment.

These are:

1. Topographic or Physiographic Factors, which consist of altitude, direction of mountain chains, plateaus, plains, lakes, rivers, sea level and valleys etc.

2. Climatic Factors or Aerial Factors, which include atmosphere, light, temperature and humidity etc.

3. Edaphic Factors, which comprise lithosphere or soil.

4. Biotic Factors, which include all types of interactions between different forms of life. For example, men, animals, plants and micro-organisms etc

Types of Environment: Environment can be conveniently divided into two categories:

1. Natural Environment

2. Man-made or Anthropogenic Environment

1. Natural Environment. The natural environmental system operates through self-regulating mechanism, called homeostatic environment mechanism, i.e., any change in natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter balanced by changes in other component of the environment.

Thus there exists a reciprocal relationship among various components of the environment.

These components are air, water, soil, radiation, land, forest, wild life, noise, timber, living space, flora and fauna etc.

2. Man-made Environment. Man is the most powerful environmental agent, spearheaded by modern technologies capable of modifying the environment according to his needs to a great extent. Man-made environment includes:

(a) Technology

(b) Transportation

(c) Housing

(d) Agricultural Implements

(e) Dam-building

(f) Channelisation of energy sources, like hydro, thermal, nuclear and atomic energy

(g) Revolution in communication, e.g., Satellite, Remote sensing, Telex, Fax, Internet, etc.

(h) Industrial Revolution

(i) Space Acceleration, e.g. landing of man on moon.

(j) Space Laboratories

(k) Computerization etc.

People and Environment: Man and environment interaction occurs in following ways:

(1) Man fulfills his natural necessities:

(A) Breathing

(B) Feeding

(C) Drinking

(2) Man acquires his secondary needs:

(A) Shelter

(B) Energy

(3) Man and environment interaction is the basis of development of:

(A) Industries

(B)  Power Plants

(4) Environment clears the human wastage and vice-versa:

(A) Breathing and photo synthesis

(B) Food processing

There are two important ways in which environment affects the human health. The first is directly, through pollutants discharged by industries into the air and water, and by automobiles. In urban areas, particularly the disease pattern is closely linked to the deterioration in the quality of air and water.

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Human health is also affected by the quality of the environment in the place of work. Workers in certain occupations such as textile mills or stone quarries, suffer from occupational diseases. Although by law, the people running these factories and quarries are expected to provide the workers adequate security to minimise their exposure to pollutants, in a number of cases such steps are not taken. As a result, a large number of workers suffer for years from diseases, for which they receive little or no compensation.

The deterioration of the environment, such as the existence of stagnant pools in villages and cities, provides fertile ground for the breeding of vectors. Many such disease carrying vectors have developed immunity to pesticides. As a result, malaria, which was once thought to have been eradicated, has reached endemic proportions in many parts of the country. The worst is that, the malaria parasite has become immune to a number of pesticides and drugs. The diseases like kala-azar are difficult to eradicate because the organisms spreading it find increasing number of breeding places.

Overcrowding and unhygienic living conditions in cities, especially in slums, have also contributed to the spread of a number of communicable diseases like tuberculosis and cholera.

People and Environment MCQs


The word ‘pollution’, derived from the Latin word pollutionem (meaning to defile or make dirty) is the act of polluting the environment. The term Pollution is defined in various ways.

For example,

1. Pollution is the unfavourable alteration of our environment, largely because of human activities.

2. Pollution is defined as a deviation from the natural composition of a part of the environment, resulting in adverse effects on life.

3. Pollution is an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of our air, land and water (or basic amenities) causing harmful effect on our life or that of other desirable species and cultural assets.

4. Pollution means the addition of any foreign material like inorganic, organic, biological or radiological or any physical change occurring in nature which may harm or affect living organisms directly or indirectly, immediately or after a long time.

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Environmental Pollution: Environmental pollution is the result of urban-industrial technological revolution and speedy exploitation of every bit of natural resources.’ The term environment, as far as pollution is concerned, includes the air, the water, the soil, the noise, the buildings, the landscapes, the oceans, the lakes, the rivers, the parks, the vehicles and many other things. Thus Pollution is generally defined as “The addition of the constituents to water, air or land, which adversely alter the natural quality of the environment.”

In some cases, pollution may involve removal, rather than the addition of the constituents from the environment.

Causes of Pollution: Modern ecologists, point out that there are various factors, such as human population explosion, rapid industrialization, deforestation, unplanned urbanization, scientific and technological advancement, etc. which are mainly responsible for the pollution crisis on earth. It is well evident, that United States, with its vast infrastructure of industries is one of the leading polluters of the world. The worst pollution occurs in countries where there have been the greatest scientific and technological advances.

Rapid population growth, combined with modern technology has caused a serious environmental crisis. This is because of the fact that in well developed countries, citizens consume more food, use more fertilizers and pesticides, fuel, minerals, automobiles (cars, scooters, vans, trucks etc.) and other manufactured products of all kinds. Almost all of these products are manufactured in one or other kinds of industries. These industries are responsible for adding pollutants in our environment (land, soil, water and air) and hence cause pollution.

Everything today is polluted by pollutants. The rivers, seas and lakes are polluted by wastes coming from various industries, the air by toxic effluents from thermal power plants and exhausts of automobiles and the land or soil by chemicals, fertilizers, pesticides, acidic rains and insecticides etc.

The most important and common pollutants of well developed and developing countries are deposited matter (such as soot, smoke, tar, dust and frit), gases (such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, fluorine, chlorine, ozone, ammonia etc.), chemical compounds (such as aldehydes, detergents, hydrogen fluorides, arsines, phosgene etc.), toxic metals (such as cadmium, mercury, lead, iron, zinc etc.), economic poisons (such as herbicides, pesticides, fungicides, insecticides, rodenticides etc.), fertilizers (such as N, K, P fertilizers), sewage (such as human wastes), radioactive substances (such as argon-41, cobalt-60, caesium-137, iodine-131, krypton-85, strontium-90, tritium and plutonium-239) noise and heat.

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People and Environment Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)

1. Who wrote the book ‘Violence of Green Revolution?’

(A)Vandana Siva

(B) Sheela Dikshit

(C) Menaka Gandhi

(D) Arundhathi Roy

2. The biggest award for environmental activities in India is given in the name of an individual. In whose name is it constituted?

(A) Lal Bahadur Shasthri

(B) Morarji Desai

(C) Indira Gandhi

(D) Kamaraj

3. World wildlife week is observed during?

(A) First week of October

(B) Last week of October

(C) Third week of October

(D) First week of September

4. The book silent spring was written by?

(A) Madhav Gadgil

(B) Anil Agarwal

(C) Rachel Carson

(D) E.O.Wilson

5. Ozone Umbrella is located in which layer of atmosphere?

(A) Troposphere

(B) Stratosphere

(C) Mesosphere

(D) Ionosphere

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6. The unit of total water content of the soil is known as?

(A) Holard

(B) Chraserd

(C) Echard

(D) All of the above

7. The phenomenon of occurrence of additional species found in the ecotone or transitional zone between adjoining ecosystems is known as?

(A) Edge effect

(B) Root effect

(C) Raman effect

(D) Coolidge effect

8. The complex network of interconnected food chains is called?

(A) Trophic level

(B) Food web

(C) Ecological pyramid

(D) Ecology chain

9. The area to which a species is biologically adapted to live is known as?

(A) Niche

(B) Habitat

(C) Succession

(D) Community

10. The animal which consumes decaying organic matter is?

(A) Carnivore

(B) Detritivore

(C) Herbivore

(D) Producers

11. An ecosystem gradually merges with an adjoining one through a transitional zone is called the?

(A)Ecological niche

(B) Ecological footprint

(C) Ecotone

(D) Shore effect

12. Favorable morphological and physiological response to a change in environment is called?

(A) Preadaptation

(B) Ecotyping

(C) Formation of ecophene

(D) Acclimatisation

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13. Plants adapted to open, sunny habitats are?

(A) Sciophytes

(B) Heliophytes

(C) Mesophytes

(D) Epiphytes

14. Which one is nature’s cleaner?

(A) Consumers

(B) Producers

(C) Decomposers and Scavengers

(D) Symbionts

15. The word Biophilia was coined by?

(A) Dr. Hackel

(B) Dr. Johanssen

(C) Dr. Benjamine

(D) E. O. Wilson

16. Lotic ecosystem refers to?

(A) Static water system

(B) Ecosystem of flowing water

(C) Ecosystem of estuaries

(D) Deep marine water system

17. Plants which grow in shade are called?

(A) Sciophytes

(B) Heliophytes

(C) Oxylophytes

(D) Epiphytes

18. Ecology is?

(A) The science that studies the evolution of life

(B) Integrates both social and natural sciences to help us understand how the earth works

(C) The study of the relationships between organisms and their environment

(D) The study of the environment in the absence of humans

19. What is hibernation and aestivation?

(A) Thermal adaptation shown by animals

(B) Wind adaptation shown by animals

(C) Adaptation of animals to escape from predators

(D) None of the above

20. What is symbiosis?

(A) Study of distribution of related species

(B) Association between members of same species

(C) Association between members of two species

(D) None of the above

21. What is edge species?

(A) The species which occur abundantly in the ecotone

(B) Species on the verge of extinction

(C) Rare species

(D) Endemic species

22. What is Plankton?

(A) Microscopic floating organisms – Plants and animals

(B) Bottom dwelling aquatic organisms

(C) Large plants in water

(D) None of the above

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23. What is deep ecology?

(A) Protecting nature for its own sake

(B) Ecology of deep sea

(C) Ecology of forest

(D) Ecology of caves

24. The first protected area in India is?

(A) Silent valley

(B) Corbett National Park

(C) Bandipur sanctuary

(D) Nagar-Hole

25. Zoos are examples for?

(A) In-situ conservation

(B) in-vivo conservation

(C) ex-situ conservation

(D) Exvivo conservation

26. _____ tree is known as ‘flame of the forest’?

(A) Zizyphus

(B) Butea monosperma

(C) Jackfruit

(D) Pongamea

27. The Red Data book which lists endangered species is maintained by?





28. Which of the following is an extinct species?

(A) Tiger

(B) Lion

(C) Dodo

(D) Ostrich

29. Many wild plant and animals are on the verge of extinction due to?

(A) Habitat destruction

(B) Climatic changes

(C) Non availability of food

(D) None of the above

30. What is meant by ex-situ conservation?

(A) Conservation of a species by protecting its habitat along with all other species living there

(B) Conservation of forest eco system

(C) Conservation of a species outside its natural habitat

(D) Conservation of plants.

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31. What is the name of the action plan for sustainable development in the Twenty first century framed in the Rio Declaration on Environment & Development (1992)?

(A)Action 21

(B) Agenda 21

(C) Rio 21

(D) Declaration 21

32. Enrichment of water body by nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen is called?

(A) Succession

(B) Eutrophication

(C) Stratification

(D) Climax Vegetation

33. The worst nuclear accident happened to date is occurred at?

(A) Chernobyl in 1986

(B) Three Mile Power Plant in 1979

(C) Sellafield in 1957

(D) Fukushima in 2011

34. Euro II standard refers to?

(A) Lowering sulphur content in fuel

(B) Increasing sulphur content in fuel

(C) Lowering carbon content in fuel

(D) Increasing carbon content in fuel

35. What is ‘temporary threshold shift’?

(A) Hearing loss due to excessive noise

(B) Noise that is untolerable

(C) Tolerable noise

(D) Inaudible noise

36. Minamata disease is caused by?

(A) Air Pollution

(B) Water Pollution

(C) Marine Pollution

(D) All of the above

37. BOD of river water is found very high. This means water?

(A) is clear

(B) Is highly polluted

(C) Contain Algae

(D) Contain many dissolved minerals

38. The darkening of the skin due to arsenic poisoning is called?

(A) Black syndrome

(B) Diffuse melanosis

(C) Skin scaling

(D) None of the above

39. Green House effect is caused by?

(A) Increase in CO2

(B) Increase in O2

(C) Decrease in O2

(D) Decrease in CO2

40. The phenomenon of accumulation of nonbiodegradable pesticides in human beings?


(B) Bioaccumulation

(C) Biodegradation

(D) Bioremediation

41. Eutrophication results from?

(A) Agricultural and sewage water

(B) Vehicle exhaust

(C) Pesticides

(D) Industrial effluents

42. What is meant by root zone process?

(A) A control measure to prevent water pollution

(B)A process by which roots of plants are spread on the ground

(C) A control measure to prevent soil pollution

(D)None of the above

43. What is an Incinerator?

(A) Furnace used for burning solid waste

(B) Furnace used for treating liquid waste

(C) Both (A) & (B)

(D) None of the above

44. The combustion of waste in the absence of Oxygen is called?

(A) Haemolysis

(B) Pyrolysis

(C) Hydrolysis

(D) None of these

45. Disease aggravated by air pollution is?

(A) cholera

(B) Rheumatism

(C) Bronchitis

(D) Haemophilia

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46. Official date of Earth Day is on?

(A) April 22

(B) March 21

(C) May 22

(D) June 05

47. World Water Day is celebrated on?

(A) May 22

(B) June 05

(C) March 22

(D) May 11

48. Which year was declared as the ‘Water Year’ by Indian government?

(A) 2010

(B) 2004

(C) 2007

(D) 2000

49. What is meant by GM foods?

(A) Growth modified foods

(B) Genetically modified food

(C) Growth marked foods

(D) Good mobility food

50. Who had stated in the Stockholm Conference in 1972 that poverty was the greatest polluter?

(A)Indira Gandhi

(B) Mahatma Gandhi

(C) Rajiv Gandhi

(D) Jawaharlal Nehru

51. The movement ‘Pani Panjayath’ was initiated to conserve waters in the drought prone areas of which state?


(B) Rajasthan

(C) Maharashtra

(D) Karnataka

52. The word Tsunami is derived from two Japanese words?

(A) Tsu (big) and name (flow)

(B) Tsu (harbour) and name (wave)

(C) Tsu (big wave) and name (wave)

(D) None of the above

53. The method of simultaneous integration of trees with agricultural crops is called?

(A) Agro forestry

(B) Deforestation

(C) Reforestation

(D) Combined culture

54. The deadliest Tsunami in recorded history took place on?

(A) 26-Dec-2004

(B) 26-Dec-2000

(C) 15-Nov-1990

(D) 15-Dec-1999

55. World Ozone day is?

(A) March 16

(B) June 5

(C) September 16

(D) November 16

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56. What is ‘Black Lung?

(A) Occupational Hazard to the miners

(B) Occupational Hazard to navigators

(C) Occupational Hazard to pesticide applicators.

(D) None of the above

57. The Ganga Action Plan was initiated during the year?

(A) 1986

(B) 1988

(C) 1990

(D) 1992

58. Identify the correct sequence of energy sources in order of their share in the power sector in India

(A) Thermal > nuclear > hydro > wind

(B) Thermal > hydro > nuclear > wind

(C) Hydro > nuclear > thermal > wind

(D) Nuclear > hydro > wind > thermal

59. Chromium as a contaminant in drinking water in excess of permissible levels, causes?

(A) Skeletal damage

(B) Gastrointestinal problem

(C) Dermal and nervous problems

(D) Liver/Kidney problems

60. The main precursors of winter smog are?

(A) N2O and hydrocarbons

(B) NOx and hydrocarbons

(C) SO2 and hydrocarbons

(D) SO2 and ozone

61. Flash floods are caused when?

(A) The atmosphere is convectively unstable and there is considerable vertical wind shear

(B) The atmosphere is stable

(C) The atmosphere is convectively unstable with no vertical winds hear

(D) Winds are catabatic

62. In mega cities of India, the dominant source of air pollution is?

(A) Transport sector

(B) Thermal power

(C) Municipal waste

(D) Commercial sector

63. Which of the following is not covered in 8 missions under the Climate Action Plan of Government of India?

(A) Solar power

(B) Waste to energy conversion

(C) Afforestation

(D) Nuclear energy

64. The concentration of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in drinking water should not exceed?

(A) 500 mg/L

(B) 400 mg/L

(C) 300 mg/L

(D) 200 mg/L

65. ‘Chipko’ movement was first started by?

(A) Arundhati Roy

(B) Medha Patkar

(C) Ila Bhatt

(D) Sunderlal Bahuguna

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