Geography of Madhya Pradesh PDF Download

Geography of Madhya Pradesh PDF Download: Madhya Pradesh is known as ‘The Heart of India’ due to its geographical location in India. Generally, the geography of Madhya Pradesh includes high plateau, low plateau and river valley plains. On the basis of Geographical area Madhya Pradesh is the second largest state of India after Rajasthan.

New districts of Madhya Pradesh (Proposed)

  1. Chachaura district
  2. Maihar district
  3. Nagda district
  4. Mauganj
  5. Pandhurna district

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General Studies of Madhya Pradesh MCQs | Madhya Pradesh GK Objective Question Bank for MPPSC Exams 2023-2024. General Studies of Madhya Pradesh MCQs | Madhya Pradesh GK Question Bank for MPPSC Exams.

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Geography of Madhya Pradesh PDF Download

Demography of Madhya Pradesh

Population                                          7, 26, 26, 809 (2011)

• Male                                                  3, 76, 12, 306

• Female                                             3, 50, 14, 503

Sex Ratio (Females per 1000 Males)         931

Sex Ratio (0-6 years)                                 918

SC Population %                                      15.6%

ST Population %                                       21.1%

Literacy Rate (%)                                      72.6% (2011)

• Male                                                      80.5%

• Female                                                   60.0%

Population Density                                   236 persons per sq km

Read more: Ancient History of Madhya Pradesh PDF Download

Location and Extent of Madhya Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh literally means “Central Province”, and is located in the geographic heart of India in between the latitude of 21.6°N–26.30°N and longitude of 74°9’E–82°48’E. The state straddles the Narmada River, which runs east and west between the Vindhya and Satpura ranges; these ranges and the Narmada are the traditional boundaries between the north and south of India. The highest point in Madhya Pradesh is Dhupgarh, with an elevation of 1,350 m (4,429 ft).

The state is bordered on the west by Gujarat, on the northwest by Rajasthan, on the northeast by Uttar Pradesh, on the east by Chhattisgarh, and on the south by Maharashtra.

  • Madhya Pradesh is located in North Central part of India. It forms the part of peninsular plateau of India.
  • In Madhya Pradesh, the standard meridian of India passes through Singrauli district.
  • The extent of the state from East to West is 870 km and from North to South is 605 km. The average elevation of the state is between 300 and 600 m above mean sea level.
  • The most Eastern district of Madhya Pradesh is Singrauli and the most Western district is Alirajpur.
  • The most Northern district is Morena and the most Southern district is Burhanpur.

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Districts Sharing Boundaries with Two States:

  1. Alirajpur district of Madhya Pradesh shares boundary with states of Gujarat and Maharashtra.
  2. Balaghat district of Madhya Pradesh shares boundary with Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra.
  3. Jhabua district of Madhya Pradesh shares boundary with Rajasthan and Gujarat.
  4. Singrauli district of Madhya Pradesh shares boundary with Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.

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Geography of Madhya Pradesh PDF Download

Geographical Area of Madhya Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh’s total geographical area is 3, 08, 252 sq km, which is 9.38% of the total area of the India. This area is divided among the 52 districts of the state.

Chhindwara (11, 815 sq km) and Sagar (10,252 sq km) are the largest districts of Madhya Pradesh. Datia (2,691 sq km) is the smallest district of Madhya Pradesh.

According to geographical area, the largest division of Madhya Pradesh is Jabalpur and the smallest is Chambal division.

Read morePolity and Constitutional System of Madhya Pradesh Question Bank (MCQs)

Geological Formation of Madhya Pradesh

Times                                    Traces (in Madhya Pradesh)

Archean                        Pink Granite of Bundelkhand, Gneiss, Sill, Dyke

Dharwar System          Chilpi hills of Balaghat, Sausar hills of Chhindwara & Bijawar of Bundelkhand

Purana System              Panna, Bijawar of Gwalior

Aryan                            Coal fields of Satpura and Baghelkhand

Cretaceous System       Bagh and Lameta series and volcanoes of Malwa

Tertiary System             Narmada and Son Valley

Read moreGeography of Madhya Pradesh Question Bank (MCQs)

Geographical Divisions of Madhya Pradesh

On the basis of surface features, there are three geographical divisions in the state. These are as follows:

1. Central Highlands

2. Satpura and Maikal Ranges

3. Eastern or Baghelkhand Plateau Region

Mountain Ranges of Madhya Pradesh

Some famous mountain ranges in Madhya Pradesh are as follows:

Satpura Range: These ranges expand from the South of the Narmada River and run parallel to Vindhyachal. These ranges are 1120 km long.

The average height of these ranges is more than 900 m.

The Satpura ranges are composed of granite and basalt rocks.

The Southern side of the mountain is marked by Gawilgarh ranges, Northern region is marked by Mahadeo mountain ranges and to the East lies the Chhindwara and Betul plateau segment.

Read more: Economy of Madhya Pradesh Question Bank (MCQs)

Maikal-Amarkantak Range

This mountain range is the extension of South-Eastern segment of Satpura Mountain. The range extends till Chota Nagpur (Jharkhand) region.

The Maikal-Amarkantak range was created from sandstone, quartz and sedimentary rocks. The laterite soil is prominently found in this region.

The mountain range is spread in the region of Shahdol, Mandala and Dhidori districts of the state.

Rivers like Narmada, Son, and Johila and Rhind rivers originated from Maikal-Amarkantak mountain range.

Mahadeo Range

This range is the Eastern extension of Satpura mountain ranges. The districts of Chhindwara, Narsimhapur, Seoni and Hoshangabad come under this mountain range.

The Mahadeo ranges were created from sandstone and quartz rock system. The only hill station of the state Pachmarhi lies in the Mahadeo ranges.

Read more: Polity and Constitutional System of Madhya Pradesh Question Bank (MCQs)

Kaimur-Bhander Range

This range is the Eastern extension of Vindhyachal mountain ranges. The Kaimur-Bhander ranges were created from red sandstone and quartz rocks.

It divides Yamuna and Son River.

Districts of Sidhi, Satna, Rewa, Panna and Chhatarpur come under this mountain range.

Vindhyachal Range

This range is located from the East to West direction in the North of Narmada valley. It is created from red sandy stone and quartz.

It is also called residual mountains. It is one of the oldest mountain ranges. The elevation of this range is 457 to 610 m.

The highest point this range is Amarkantak (1,057 m).

Some Important Peaks of Madhya Pradesh

Mountain Peaks                                             Height

Kalumar/Sadbhavna                                      752 m

Amarkantak                                                   1057 m

Chauragarh                                                    1326 m

Dhoopgarh                                                    1350 m

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Madhya Pradesh also has three major seasons – summer, Monsoon, and winter. During summer (March–June), the temperature in the entire state ranges above 34.6 it has increased as it is all time high in Madhya Pradesh. In general, the eastern parts of Madhya Pradesh are hotter than the western parts. The regions like Gwalior, Morena and Datia record temperatures of over 42 °C in May. The humidity is relatively very low and the region usually experiences frequent mild dust storms.

The southwest Monsoon usually breaks out in mid-June and the entire state receives a major share of its rainfall between June and September. The south and south-east regions tend to experience a higher rainfall whereas the parts of the north-west receive less. Mandla, Balaghat, Sidhi, Jabalpur, and other extreme eastern parts receive more than 150 cm of rainfall. The districts of western Madhya Pradesh receive less than 80 cm of rainfall.

Read more: Geography of Madhya Pradesh PDF Download

Read more: Economy of Madhya Pradesh Question Bank (MCQs)

Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals and organisms that together supports life on Earth. Madhya Pradesh is a part of Indian Peninsular Plateau in which a large quantity of depositional soil is found. The soils of Madhya Pradesh are well matured in nature as it has been the oldest part of Gondwana land.

The soil found in Madhya Pradesh is mostly old soil except the traces found in the river valleys. Based on the regional factors and soil profile, the soils have diverse variations in colour, structure, texture and composition.

Major Soils of Madhya Pradesh

Soils of Madhya Pradesh are broadly classified into five types:

1. Black soil

2. Red-Yellow soil

3. Alluvial soil

4. Laterite soil

5. Mixed soil

The state of Madhya Pradesh has an extensive network of rivers having great river basins and watersheds of a number of rivers. Ten major rivers of India originate from Madhya Pradesh.

Drainage system in Madhya Pradesh includes some major rivers crosses through the state like Narmada River, Tapti River, Chambal River, Betwa River, Kali Sindh River, Son River, etc. The ranges of Vindhya and Satpura play a major role as watershed for rivers. The Chambal, Sindh, Betwa and Ken rivers flow northward and meet Yamuna. The river

Son falls directly into Ganga. Narmada, Tapti and Mahi rivers flow westward and fall into the Arabian Sea, whereas the Wainganga and Pench River meet Godavari in the South.

Practice MCQs:

1. Kshipra River merges in?

(a) Son

(b) Chambal

(c) Narmada

(d) Ken

Answer: b

2. Tawa River originates in the district of?

(a) Betul

(b) Hoshangabad

(c) Datia

(d) Amarkantak

Answer: a

3. The river Tons originates in Satna district of Madhya Pradesh. It is the tributary of which rivers?

(a) Yamuna

(b) Ganga

(c) Chambal

(d) Narmada

Answer: a

4. Tamsa (Tons) originates from Kaimur hills in?

(a) Satna

(b) Hoshangabad

(c) Shahpura

(d) Shivpuri

Answer: a

5. Name the place of origin of Sindh River in Madhya Pradesh?

(a) Vidisha

(b) Satna

(c) Indore

(d) Dewas

Answer: a

6. Which one of the following pairs consists of river and its origin is correct?

(a) Ganga-Patna

(b) Godavari-Bastar

(c) Narmada-Amarkantak

(d) Mahanadi-Aravalli

Answer: c

7. Name the place of confluence of Wainganga River?

(a) Narmada

(b) Ganga

(c) Yamuna

(d) Godavari

Answer: d

8. Indore, the commercial capital city of Madhya Pradesh is situated on the bank of which river?

(a) Gambhiri

(b) Khan

(c) Kshipra

(d) Indravati

Answer: b

9. In which district of Madhya Pradesh Kapil Dhara waterfall is located?

(a) Rewa

(b) Shahdol

(c) Anuppur

(d) Harda

Answer: c

10. Consider the following statements.

(i)Narmada River travels a distance of 1312 km.

(ii) It is/longest river of the state and 5th longest river in India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) Only (i)

(b) Only (ii)

(c) Both (i) and (ii)

(d) None of these

Answer: c

Rivers and their Places of Confluence

River                                  Length (Total)               Place of Confluence                  Origin

Narmada                            1312 km                       Gulf of Khambhat                     Amarkantak

Chambal                             965 km                         Yamuna River              Janapav Mountain

Tapti                                   725 km                          Gulf of Khambhat                     Multai

Kali Sindh                           461 km                          Chambal River (Rajasthan)        Dewas district

Betwa                                 590 km                          Yamuna River (Hamirpur)          Kubra village

Kshipra                               195 km                          Chambal River                         Kakri Bardi

Ken                                     427 km                          Yamuna River                           Vindhyanchal

Parbati                                436 km                          Chambal River                         Sehore

Sindh                                  470 km                          Chambal River                          Vidisha district

Tawa                                   172 km                           Narmada River                    Mahadeo Mountain

Kuno                                   180 km                          Chambal River                     Shivpuri Plateau

Wardha                               528 km                           Wainganga River      Multai

Wainganga                        579 km                           Godavari River                        Mahadeo Hills

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