Political Resistance of Rajput Rulers against Muslim Power | Special reference to Rattan Singh, Hammir, Kanhad dev and Maldev, Chandrasen and Pratap

Political Resistance of Rajput Rulers against Muslim Power. Special reference to Rattan Singh, Hammir, Kanhad dev and Maldev, Chandrasen and Pratap.

During the reign of Iltutmish, the Rajput states of Kalinjar, Bayana, Gwalior, Ranthambore and Jalore rebelled against the Turkish governors and gained independence. In 1226, Iltutmish led an army to recapture the lost territories. He was successful in capturing Ranthambore, Jalore, Bayana and Gwalior. However, he was unable to conquer Gujarat, Malwa and Baghelkhand.

Iltutmish also attempted an attack on Nagda, then capital of Mewar, but was repelled by the combined army of Mewar and Gujarat (under the Chalukyas). After Iltutmish’s death, the Rajput states once again rebelled, and the Bhati Rajputs, who were entrenched in Mewat, conquered the areas around Delhi.

Read more: Ancient Civilizations of Rajasthan with special reference to Mesolithic (Late Stone Age) sites in Rajasthan i.e. Nimbahera, Bagor and Mandia.

Hindu Rajput kingdoms in the north-western Indian subcontinent resisted the Muslim invasions of India, beginning with the Umayyad campaigns from the Middle East and the Ghaznavid Turks from Central Asia. They continued resistance against subsequent Muslim empires, including the Arabs, Ghurids, Delhi Sultans and the Mughals.

Political Resistance of Rajput Rulers against Muslim Power

The Gurjara-Pratihara Empire formed in the seventh century in the region called Gurjaradesa in modern-day Rajasthan after the Hunn Invasions of North India and the death of Harsha. The Pratihara era lasted until the mid-eleventh century and was ended by the Ghaznavids.

From the Pratiharas and beyond, Rajputs rose to political prominence as the large empires of ancient India broke into smaller ones. After the fall of the dynasty, several other Rajput kingdoms became prominent in the region, such as the Chahamanas of Shakambhari, Guhilas of Ahar and Nagada, and the Paramaras.

There were several battles fought between the Arabs and the Rajputs. The one Rajput dynasty that came most in conflict with and repeatedly defeated the Arabs was that of the Pratihara dynasty. Under Nagabhata I, the Rajputs fought off an Arab invasion from Sindh, probably led by Junayd ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Murri or Al Hakam ibn Awana. Mewar under Bappa Rawal and later Khoman-II also fought off several Arab invasions.

Gopendraraja Chauhan a Rajput king belonging to the Chahamanas of Shakambari dynasty defeated Sultan Beg Varisa in a battle. Another king belonging to the Chahamanas of Shakmbari dynasty named Simharaja Chauhan defeated a Muslim general Heji-ud-Din, at Jethan (possibly modern Jethana a village in Ajmer).

The Hammira Mahakavya calls him Hetim, and states that Simharaja captured four of his elephants after killing him. The identity of the defeated general is uncertain, but he might have been a subordinate of the Emir of Multan.

Read more: Major dynasties of Rajasthan and its rulers through the Ages and their cultural achievements (1000 – 1800 A.D.).

Bappa Rawal headed a confederated force of Rajputs that hindered the Arab invaders. The force had representation from almost all of the dynasties of northern India, including the Chauhans of Ajmer, Tomars of Delhi, Tak of Ahor, Chandelas of Kalinjir, Guhils of Nagda (Udaipur), Chittorgarh forces of Maan Mori, Solankis of Patan, Bhatis of Bhatner (Punjab), Katochs of Jammu and Chavdas of Gujarat. Similar conjoined forces existed in later times, notably under Khoman of Mewar in the 8th century and under Jaipal Tuar of Delhi in the 9th century. However, infighting amongst the Rajputs eventually made resistance in north India weak in the 10th century.

In 1025, Mahmud demolished and looted the Somnath Temple; its Rajput ruler, Bhima I, fled his capital at Anahilapataka. The Rajput king Paramar Bhoj of Malwa assembled an army to attack him. However, Mahmud avoided the confrontation and never returned to India again.

After Mahmud’s invasion several Ghaznavid generals tried to invade India but were defeated by the Rajput Kings. Chamundaraja Chauhan defeated a Ghaznavid general named “Hejim-ud-Din”. Prithviraja I defeated a Ghazanvid general named Baguli Shah possibly a suboordinate of Masud III sultan of Ghazna. Ajayaraja II the founder of the city of Ajmer defeated Muslim generals Muhammad Bahlim or Salar Hussain suboordinates of the Ghazanavid king Bahram Shah.

Ajayaraja’s son Arnoraja Chauhan is credited by the Ajmer prashasti inscription to have adorned Ajmer with the blood of Turushkas (Turkic people).The Prithviraja Vijaya also states that Arnoraja repulsed a Muslim invasion. According to the text, these invaders came through the desert, and had to drink the blood of their horses in absence of water. After defeating these invaders, Arnoraja purified the place of their death by commissioning a lake, which is identified with the modern Ana Sagar Lake. The lake was filled with the water of the Chandra River, identified with the modern Bandi River. Historian, R. B. Singh identifies the invader as the Ghaznavid king Bahram Shah.

By the end of twelfth century, Ghorids under Shihabuddin Ghori defeated and executed the last of Ghaznavid rulers and captured their region along with plundering Ghazna, the capital of Ghaznavids.

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The Ghorids first attacked India in 1178, where he was defeated by the Rajput confederation led by Mularaja Solanki and Naiki Devi in Battle of Kasahrada fought near Gujarat. He then came in conflict with the Chauhans of Ajmer and Delhi. By the end of 1190, Shihabuddin Ghori captured Bathinda, which formed a part of Chauhan’s territory.

In 1191, the Rajput king of Ajmer and Delhi, Prithviraj Chauhan, unified several Rajput states and decisively defeated the invading army of Shihabuddin Ghori near Taraori in the First Battle of Tarain. Shihabuddin returned, and in spite of being outnumbered, decisively defeated the Rajput Confederacy of Prithviraj on the same battlefield in the Second Battle of Tarain. Prithviraj fled the battleground but was captured shortly after and was executed. Malesi, a Kachwaha Rajput of Jaipur, lead the last stand for Rajputs against the Ghorids after Prithviraj’s escape.

In few years’ time by 1194, Shihabuddin advanced towards Kannauj and Banaras and defeated Jaichand (another major Rajput king of the time) in Battle of Chandawar despite being outnumbered again; Ghorids plundered down Varanasi (capital of Gahadavals) and destroyed several temples there. By 1198, Ghorids conquered Kannauj too. Shihabuddin left his conquests in India to his able Slave general Qutb ud Din Aibak and returned to Khorasan.

Read more: RPSC Assistant Professor 2023 Online Test Series for GK Paper 3 | General Studies of Rajasthan

During the reign of Iltutmish, the Rajput states of Kalinjar, Bayana, Gwalior, Ranthambore and Jalore rebelled against the Turkish governors and gained independence. In 1226, Iltutmish led an army to recapture the lost territories. He was successful in capturing Ranthambore, Jalore, Bayana and Gwalior.

The Delhi Sultanate took advantage of Rao Jodha’s war with Rana Kumbha and captured several Rathore strongholds, including Nagaur, Jalore and Siwana. A few years later, Rao Jodha formed an alliance with several Rajput clans, including the Deora and Bhati, and attacked the Delhi army. He succeeded in capturing Merta, Phalodi, Pokran, Bhadrajun, Sojat, Jaitaran, Siwana, Nagaur and Godwar from the Delhi Sultanate. These areas were permanently captured from Delhi and became a part of Marwar.

Rajputs under Rana Sanga managed to defend and expand their confederation against Sultanates of Malwa, Gujarat and also against Pashtuns Ibrahim Lodi, Sultan of Delhi. Sanga defeated Ibrahim Lodi in two major battles at Khatoli and Dholpur. The Rana annexed Delhi territory up to Pilia Khar, a river on the outskirts of Agra.

The ruler of Nagaur, Firuz (Firoz) Khan died around 1453–1454. Shams Khan, his son, initially sought the help of Rana Kumbha against his uncle Mujahid Khan, who had occupied the throne. After Shams Khan became the Sultan of Nagaur with the help of Rana Kumbha, he refused to weaken his defenses as promised to Rana, and sought the help of Ahmad Shah II, the Sultan of Gujarat. Angered by this, Kumbha captured Nagaur in 1456, and also Kasili, Khandela and Shakambhari.

Rana Kumbha took away from the treasury of Shams Khan a large store of precious stones, jewels and other valuable things. He also carried away the gates of the fort and an image of Hanuman from Nagaur, which he placed at the principal gate of the fortress of Kumbhalgarh, calling it the Hanuman Pol. Nagaur Sultanate ceased to exist after this disaster.

Taking advantage of the instability in Punjab, the ambitious Timurid prince, Babur invaded Hindustan and defeated Ibrahim Lodi at the First Battle of Panipat on 21 April 1526. Rana Sanga rallied a Rajput army to challenge Babur. Babur defeated the Rajputs at the Battle of Khanwa on 16 March 1527, with his superior techniques and military capabilities.

1527 at the Battle of Khanwa, Rana Sanga died in 1528. Bahadur Shah of Gujarat became a powerful Sultan. He captured Raisen in 1532 and defeated Mewar in 1533. He helped Tatar Khan to capture Bayana, which was under Mughal occupation. Humayun sent Hindal and Askari to fight Tatar Khan. At the battle of Mandrail in 1534, Tatar Khan was defeated and killed. Puranmal, the Raja of Amber, helped the Mughals in this battle. He was killed in this battle. Meanwhile, Bahadur Shah started his campaign against Mewar and led his army against the fort of Chittorgarh, the defense of the fort was led by, Rani Karnavati, widow of Rana Sanga, she started preparing for a siege and smuggled her young children to the safety of Bundi. Mewar was weakened due to constant struggles.

After the Siege of Chittorgarh (1535), Rani Karnavati, together with other women, committed Jauhar. The fort was soon re-captured by the Sisodia’s. Babur’s grandson, Akbar, tried to persuade Mewar to accept Mughal sovereignty, like other Rajputs, but Rana Udai Singh refused. Ultimately Akbar besieged the fort of Chittor leading to the Siege of Chittorgarh (1567–1568).

This time, Rana Udai Singh was persuaded by his nobles to leave the fort with his family. Jaimal Rathore of Merta and Fatah Singh of Kelwa were left to take care of the fort. On 23 February 1568, Akbar shot Jaimal Rathore with his musket, when he was looking after the repair work. That same night, the Rajput women committed Jauhar (ritual suicide) and the Rajput men, led by the wounded Jaimal and Fateh Singh, fought their last battle. Akbar entered the fort, and at least 30,000 civilians were killed. Later Akbar placed a statue of these two Rajput warriors on the gates of Agra Fort.

Akbar won the fort of Chittorgarh, but Rana Udai Singh was ruling Mewar from other places. On 3 March 1572 Udai Singh died, and his son, Maharana Pratap, sat on the throne at Gogunda. He vowed that he would liberate Mewar from the Mughals; until then he would not sleep on a bed, would not live in a palace, and would not have food on a plate.

Akbar tried to arrange a treaty with Maharana Pratap, but did not succeed.

Finally, he sent an army under Raja Man Singh in 1576. Maharana Pratap was defeated at the Battle of Haldighati in June 1576. However he escaped from the battle and started guerrilla warfare with the Mughals.

After years of struggling, Maharana Pratap was able to defeat the Mughals at the Battle of Dewair (not to be confused with the battle of Dewar which was fought by his son Rana Amar Singh).

The Badgujars/Sikarwar was the main allies of the Ranas of Mewar. Maharana Pratap died on 19 January 1597, and Rana Amar Singh succeeded him.

Akbar sent Salim to attack Mewar in October 1603, but he stopped at Fatehpur Sikri and sought permission from the emperor to go to Allahabad, and went there. In 1605 Salim sat on the throne and took the name of Jahangir.

Jahangir sent an army under his son Parviz to attack Mewar in 1606 which was defeated in the Battle of Dewar. The Mughal emperor sent Mahabat Khan in 1608. He was recalled in 1609, and Abdulla Khan was sent. Then Raja Basu was sent, and Mirza Ajij Koka was sent. No conclusive victory could be achieved.

  • The disunity among various Rajput clans didn’t allow Mewar to be completely liberated. Ultimately Jahangir himself arrived at Ajmer in 1613, and appointed Shazada Khurram to capture Mewar.
  • Khurram devastated the areas of Mewar and cut the supplies to the Rana.
  • With the advice of his nobles and the crown prince, Karan Singh, the Rana sent a peace delegation to Prince Khurram, Jahangir’s son.
  • Khurram sought approval of the treaty from his father at Ajmer. Jahangir issued an order authorising Khurram to agree to the treaty.

The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (1658–1707), who was far less tolerant of Hinduism than his predecessors, placed a Muslim on the throne of Marwar when the childless Maharaja Jaswant Singh died. This enraged the Rathores, and when Ajit Singh, Jaswant Singh’s son, was born after his death, the Marwar nobles asked Aurangzeb to place Ajit on the throne. Aurangzeb refused, and tried to have Ajit assassinated. Durgadas Rathore and the dhaa maa (wet nurse) of Ajit, Goora Dhaa (the Sainik Kshatriya Gehlot Rajputs of Mandore), and others smuggled Ajit out of Delhi to Jaipur, thus starting the thirty-year Rajput rebellion against Aurangzeb.

This rebellion united the Rajput clans, and a triple-pronged alliance was formed by the states of Marwar, Mewar, and Jaipur. One of the conditions of this alliance was that the rulers of Jodhpur and Jaipur should regain the privilege of marriage with the ruling Sisodia dynasty of Mewar, on the understanding that the offspring of Sisodia princesses should succeed to the throne over any other offspring.

Read more(MCQ) Ancient History of Rajasthan PDF Download

Rattan Singh

Mewar Kingdom was established by a Guhil chieftain Kaal Bhoja aka Bappa Rawal in circa 728 AD. By the end of 12th century, Mewar had emerged as most powerful state of Rajputana.

Alauddin Khilji ruled Delhi between 1296 and 1316. For him, winning Chittor was essential to expand his power in Gujarat and Deccan. Further, one of the declared objectives of Alauddin was to capture Rani Padmini. The siege of Chittor lasted for eight months (January to August, 1303). At that time, Rawal Ratan Singh was ruling as 42nd ruler of Mewar. Rattan Singh had ascended the throne in 1301 after death of his father Samar Singh. The immediate forefathers of Ratan Singh were powerful and successful in repulsing the invasions from earlier sultans of Delhi. For example, Rana Jaitra Singh (1213-33), the grandfather of Ratan Singh had repulsed an attack by Iltutmish.

After a lengthy siege, Rawal Ratan Singh seems to have negotiated for peace but Alauddin resorted to strategy to achieve success. Rawal was taken captive by treachery but then his warriors Gora and Badal liberated him from Khilji’s. This was followed by a bloody clash between Rajputs and Khilji’s resulting into collapse of Rajput resistance and capture of Chittor. Rawal Rattan Singh died figting the battle while Rani Padmini and other Rajput ladies committed self-immolation (Jauhar).

Alauddin was deeply incensed by the stubborn fight put up by Rajputs and self-immolation of Padmini. After the occupation of the fort, he ordered general massacre of the populace of Chittor and as a result 30 thousand Rajput men, women and children were put to sword in cold blood.

Alauddin appointed his eldest son Khizr Khan, who at that time was a young lad of seven or eight, to be the governor of Chittor. Chittor was renamed as Khizrabad. Here, Khijra Khan was also declared heir apparent to throne of Delhi. The fort was heavily garrisoned by the Sultanate army.

Post this capture, the Rajputs retracted to forests and carried on their freedom struggle through Guerilla warfare. In 1311, Khijr abandoned the fort and entrusted it to a puppet Rajput noble Maldeo. However, Rajputs of Mewar did not recognize him to be their ruler. After death of Alauddin, Maldeo was expelled by Hamir, son of Rawal Ratan Singh in 1318. Thus, Mewar became independent of Delhi within two years of death of Alauddin.

The history of Chittor is one of the most stirring chapters in Indian history for it was there that the flower of Rajput chivalry sprang to life and the immense stretch of its sacred walls and ruined palaces relate the saga of innumerable sieges and heroism which has almost become a myth now.

Chittorgarh was one of the most fiercely contested seats of power in India. With its formidable fortifications, Bappa Rawal, the legendary founder of the Sisodia dynasty, received Chittor in the middle of the eighth century, as part of the last Solanki princess’s dowry. It crowns a seven-mile- long hill, covering 700 acres (280 hectares), with its fortifications, temples, towers and palaces.

From the eighth to the 16th century, Bappa Rawal’s descendants ruled over an important kingdom called Mewar stretching from Gujarat to Ajmer. But during these eight centuries the seemingly impregnable Chittor was surrounded, overrun, and sacked three times.

In 1303 Allauddin Khilji, Sultan of Delhi, intrigued by tales of the matchless beauty of Padmini, Rani of Chittor, of her wit and charm, decided to verify this himself. His armies surrounded Chittor, and the sultan sent a message to Rana Rattan Singh, Padmini’s husband, to say that he would spare the city if he could meet its famous queen. The compromise finally reached was that the sultan could look upon Padmini’s reflection if he came unarmed into the fort. Accordingly, the sultan went up the hill and glimpsed a reflection of the beautiful Padmini standing by a lotus pool. He thanked his host who courteously escorted Allauddin down to the outer gate-where the sultan’s men waited in ambush to take the Rana hostage.

There was consternation in Chittor until Padmini devised a plan. A messenger informed the sultan that the rani would come to him. Dozens of curtained palanquins set off down the hill, each carried by six humble bearers. Once inside the Sultan’s camp, four well-armed Rajput warriors leaped out of each palanquin and each lowly palanquin bearer drew a sword. The sultan now attacked Chittor with renewed vigor. Surrender was unthinkable. The rani and her entire entourage of women, the wives of generals and soldiers, sent their children into hiding with loyal retainers. They then dressed their wedding fine, slid their farewells and singing ancient hymns, boldly entered the mahal and performed Jauhar.

The men, watching with expressionless faces, then donned saffron robes, smeared the holy ashes of their women on their foreheads, flung open the gates of the fort and thundered down the hill into the enemy ranks, to fight to the death. The second sack or shake (sacrifice) of Chittor, by which Rajputs still swear when pledging their word, occurred in 1535, when Sultan Bahadur Shan of Gujarat attacked the fort.


Hammiradeva was the last ruler from the Ranthambore branch of the Chauhans. He is also known as Hamir Dev Chauhan in the Muslim chronicles and the vernacular literature.

Hammiradeva ruled a kingdom centred on Ranthambore in present-day Rajasthan. In the 1280s, he raided several neighbouring kingdoms, which ultimately left him without allies. In the 1290s, he successfully defended his kingdom against Jalaluddin Khalji of the Delhi Sultanate. In 1299, he gave asylum to some Mongol rebels from Delhi, which prompted Jalaluddin’s successor Alauddin Khalji to invade his kingdom. Hammira’s forces achieved some successes against Alauddin’s generals Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan, but he was ultimately defeated and killed in 1301 after a long siege.

Hammira is celebrated as a hero in several texts composed after his death including Nayachandra Suri’s Hammira Mahakavya, Jodharaja’s Hammira Raso, and Chandrashekhara’s Hammira-Hatha.

Hammira’s wars with his Hindu neighbours ultimately left him without any allies against his powerful northern neighbour, the Muslim-ruled Delhi Sultanate.

According to the Jain scholar Nayachandra, Hammira was generous towards Brahmins, and respected all Indian faiths, including Jainism.

According to Sharngadhara-Paddhati, Hammira was a pupil of the scholar-poet Raghavadeva, who was a grandfather of the famous anthologist Sharngadhara. Hammira also patronised the poet Bijaditya.

Hammira has been hailed as a hero in several works written after his death, including those written in Sanskrit, Prakrit, Hindi and Rajasthani languages. The Hammira Mahakavya, his biography by the Jain scholar Nayachandra Suri, is a major source of information about him. Surjana-Charita also describes him, although it is not entirely reliable from a historical point-of-view. He is also mentioned in a few verses of Prakrta-Pingala and Sharngadhara-Paddhati. A Hindi film Hameer Hath (1964) is based on his life.

Two later Hindi works on his life include Hammira Raso by Jodharaja and Hammira-Hatha by Chandrashekhara. However, these are of little historical value.

Hammira lost his general Bhimasamha to an invasion led by the Delhi general Ulugh Khan. Hammira held his minister Dharmasimha responsible for this debacle, and had him castrated and blinded. However, Dharmasimha soon gained back the king’s favour, by raising money for his fight against the Delhi forces. This money was raised through heavy taxes on the general public, which made Hammira very unpopular among the masses. His brothers Bhoja and Pithasimha defected to Alauddin as a result of Dharmasimha’s scheming.

At Bhoja’s instigation, Alauddin sent a stronger army to Ranthambore. However, this army was defeated by Hammira’s generals, which included the rebel Mongol leaders. Alauddin next dispatched Nusrat Khan, the governor of Awadh, to reinforce Ulugh Khan’s forces. The combined Delhi forces advanced up to Ranthambore, and besieged the fort. Some days later, Nusrat Khan was hit by a manjaniq stone and killed. Taking advantage of the situation, Hammira came out of the fort with a large army, and forced Ulugh Khan to retreat.

After Nusrat Khan’s death, Alauddin decided to personally lead the siege of Ranthambore. He ordered his officers from his various provinces to assemble their contingents at Tilpat, and then led a joint force to Ranthambore. After a prolonged siege followed, during which Hammira’s officers Ratipala and Ranamalla defected to Alauddin’s side.

By July 1301, Hammira was in a dire situation owing to the defections and a famine-like situation within the fort. Therefore, he decided to fight to death with his loyal men.

The ladies of the fort, led by his chief queen Ranga Devi, died by jauhar (mass self-immolation to avoid falling into the enemy hands). Hammira offered safe passages to his brother Virama, his minister Jaja, and the rebel Mongol leader Muhammad Shah, but all of them refused to desert him. Virama died fighting by his side in a last stand.

Kanhad dev and Maldev

Kanhadadeva was a king belonging to the Chahamana dynasty, who ruled the area around Javalipura (present-day Jalore in Rajasthan). Initially, he ran the administration jointly with his father Samantasimha, and helped ward off invasions from the Delhi Sultanate.

After the Delhi ruler Alauddin Khalji conquered the neighbouring fort of Siwana, Kanhadadeva’s armies fought several skirmishes with him. In 1311, Kanhadadeva was defeated and killed in an attack led by Alauddin’s general Malik Kamaluddin. He is celebrated as a hero in Kanhadade Prabandha, a 1455 poem by Padmanābha.

Kanhadadeva was a son of his predecessor Samanta Simha. He was also known as “Dasam Saligrama” and “Gokulanatha”. According to the 17th century chronicler Munhot Nainsi, he had a brother named Maladeva.

The 15th century Kanhad dev Prabandha claims that Alauddin’s daughter Piroja fell in love with Kanhadade’s son. Alauddin offered to marry her to the Chahamana prince, stating the couple had also been married in several previous births.

Rao Maldeo Rathore (5 December 1511 – 7 November 1562) was a king of the Rathore dynasty, who ruled the kingdom of Marwar in present day state of Rajasthan. Maldeo ascended the throne in 1531 CE, inheriting a small ancestral principality of Rathore’s but after a long period of military actions against his neighbours, Maldeo swept significant territories which included parts of present day Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and Sindh. He refused to ally with either the Sur Empire or the Mughal Empire.

Maldeo’s credential as a ruler were praised by several Persian chronicles of the time like Tabaaq-i-Akbari and Tarik-i-Ferishta composed by Nizammuddin and Ferishta who both acknowledged him as the most powerful monarch in Hindustan.

Maldeo was born on 5 December 1511 as the eldest son of Rao Ganga, the Rathore ruler of Marwar. His mother, Rani Padma Kumari, was a princess from the Deora Chauhan kingdom of Sirohi. By the time he ascended the throne in 1531, Maldeo already enjoyed the reputation of being an intrepid warrior. Traditional and popular accounts list him amongst the most important rulers that Marwar has known.

In 1534, Daulat Khan led an army and besieged Merta, which was then under Biram Dev Rathore. Maldeo took advantage of this situation to conquer Nagaur and force Daulat to flee to Ajmer.

War with Merta

Biram Dev of Merta had recently won Ajmer from the Gujarat Sultanate. Maldev demanded Ajmer by saying that Biram was too weak to hold Ajmer against Gujarat. Biram refused this request, resulting in Maldeo sending an army and conquering Ajmer from Biram dev.

War with Jaisalmer

Maldeo Rathore was expanding his territories westward and besieged Jaisalmer in 1537. Rawal Lunkaran was forced to sue for peace by giving Maldeo his daughter Umade Bhattiyani in marriage to him.

Through this alliance Maldeo was able to secure his western borders and employ a large number of Bhati Rajputs from Jaisalmer.

War with Jalore

After his campaign against Jaisalmer, Maldeo recruited a large number of Bhati soldiers and used them against his enemies. He soon after conquered Ajmer with their help and then turned towards Jalore, which was ruled by Sultan Sikandar Khan. Maldeo successfully conquered Jalore and took Sikandar as a prisoner to Jodhpur. Where the sultan died after a short time in prison

Maldeo and Humayun

Maldeo Rathore had made an alliance with the Mughal emperor Humayun against Sher Shah Suri. But shortly after Humayun was defeated in the battles of Chausa and Kannauj by the Afghan emperor. Humayun upon losing most of his territories turned to Maldeo for help and was called to Marwar for refuge by the Rao.

According to Rajput sources, Mughals killed several cows on the way to Marwar; this made the local Rajputs hostile towards Humayun as cows were sacred to the Hindus. Humayun was thus forced to flee from Marwar. The Mughal sources however blame Maldeo for betrayal and say that Maldeo breached the alliance because he was given more favourable terms by Sher Shah. According to Satish Chandra – “Maldeo invited him, but seeing the small size of his following, set his face against him” Chandra also says that Maldeo could have arrested Humayun but he refrained as he was an invited guest.


Rao Chandrasen Rathore (r. 1562–1581) was a Rathore ruler of Marwar (in the present day Rajasthan state of India). He was a younger son of Rao Maldev Rathore. Chandrasen followed his father’s policy and stayed hostile to the ruling foreign powers in India. He is also known as Pratap of Marwar. He defended his kingdom for nearly two decades against relentless attacks from the Mughal Empire.

On the death of Rao Maldeo, Chandrasen ascended the Gaddi (throne) of Marwar.

Although there was no law of Primogeniture present, rarely had the rights of the older child been put aside. This led to feud between Chandrasen and his brothers.

In 1575 a powerful Mughal operation was launched against Chandrasen under Shah Quli Khan, Rai Singh, Keshav Das and Shahbaz Khan.

In 1576 the powerful fort of Siwana which served as Chandrasen’s capital was captured by the Mughals.

Akbar then had sent Jalal Khan to capture Chandrasen. But in the hot pursuit of Chandrasen, Jalal Khan lost his life. It seems the garrison used by Chandrasen at Siwana was sufficiently secured as could not be dislodged by the strenuous efforts put by Jalal Khan and other. He had also put a troop of faithful Rathors of Durana.

Finally in his 21st regnal year, Akbar had decided to put an end to the thing and sent a strong force under Mir Bakhshi Shahbaz Khan. Shahbaz Khan had managed to reduce the fort of Duran and attack Siwana. By the end of March 1576, the fort of Siwana had fallen and left Chandrasen as a homeless wanderer.

Maharana Pratap

Maharana Pratap, also known as Rana Pratap Singh, was a renowned Rajput warrior and the ruler of the Mewar region in Rajasthan, India, during the 16th century. He was born on May 9, 1540, and ruled from 1572 until his death on January 19, 1597. Maharana Pratap is remembered for his valiant efforts to resist Mughal emperor Akbar’s expansionist policies and for his unwavering commitment to the cause of independence.

Let’s take a look at Maharana Pratap’s family:

1. Maharana Pratap Father

Maharana Udai Singh II – He was the ruler of Mewar and the father of Maharana Pratap. Maharana Udai Singh II founded the city of Udaipur, which served as the capital of Mewar.

2. Maharana Pratap Mother

Maharani Jaiwanta Bai – She was the mother of Maharana Pratap and played a significant role in his upbringing.

3. Maharana Pratap Wives

Maharana Pratap had several wives, but the most prominent among them were:

– Maharani Ajabde Punwar (also known as Phool Kanwar) – She was Maharana Pratap’s first wife and a source of great support and inspiration for him.

– Maharani Solanki Bai (also known as Rani Dheer Bai or Rani Bai Sa) – She was another of Maharana Pratap’s wives and the mother of his son, Amar Singh.

4. Maharana Pratap Children

Maharana Pratap had several children. Some of the well-known ones include:

Amar Singh – He succeeded Maharana Pratap as the ruler of Mewar after his death.

Kunwar Shakti Singh – He was another son of Maharana Pratap.

Kunwar Veer Singh – He was also one of Maharana Pratap’s sons.

Maharana Pratap’s family played a crucial role in supporting him during his struggles against the Mughal forces led by Akbar. Their collective efforts and determination contributed to the legacy of Maharana Pratap as one of the most celebrated and respected Rajput warriors in Indian history.

Maharana Pratap Path of Struggle

Pratap’s ascension to the throne of Mewar was marred by disputes over succession. After Maharana Udai Singh II’s death, his eldest son Jagmal was initially crowned as the heir. However, due to his incompetence and treacherous inclinations, he was soon replaced by Pratap as the rightful king of Mewar in 1572. This led to a division within the family, and Pratap faced numerous internal challenges in the early years of his reign.

Maharana Pratap Battles

Maharana Pratap was a renowned Rajput warrior and ruler of Mewar, a region in present-day Rajasthan, India. He is best known for his resistance against the powerful Mughal Empire, particularly during the reign of Emperor Akbar. Some of the notable battles fought by Maharana Pratap are:

Battle of Haldighati (1576): The Battle of Haldighati is one of the most famous and significant battles in Indian history. It took place on June 18, 1576, between the forces of Maharana Pratap and the Mughal army led by Raja Man Singh of Amber, a trusted general of Emperor Akbar. Though Maharana Pratap’s forces displayed remarkable courage, they were outnumbered and faced defeat. Maharana Pratap himself was seriously injured in this battle and had to retreat.

Siege of Chittorgarh (1567-1568): Before the Battle of Haldighati, Maharana Pratap’s forces fought against the Mughal forces in a prolonged siege of the Chittorgarh fort. Chittorgarh, the capital of Mewar, was under Mughal control for a brief period after its capture by Akbar’s forces. However, Maharana Pratap eventually regained control of the fort.

Battle of Dewair (1582): After the Battle of Haldighati, Rana Pratap continued his guerrilla warfare against the Mughals. In the Battle of Dewair, fought in 1582, Maharana Pratap’s forces succeeded in defeating a Mughal army led by Man Singh I. This victory boosted the morale of the Rajput warriors.

Battle of Gogunda (1576-1577): Following the Battle of Haldighati, Maharana Pratap reorganized his forces and attacked the Mughal commander Udaipur, and surrounding areas. The battle was fought in and around Gogunda, a town in Mewar. Though not a decisive victory, it showcased Maharana Pratap’s determination to resist Mughal dominance.

Battle of Rakhtalai (1587): In the later stages of his life, Rana Pratap confronted the combined forces of the Mughals and the Amber kingdom, led by Akbar and Man Singh I, respectively, in the Battle of Rakhtalai. Maharana Pratap managed to escape defeat in this battle, but the overall conflict continued.

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