Jagdish Chandra Bose first Indian scientist to study radio and microwaves

India’s great scientist Jagdish Chandra Bose was born on November 30, 1858, in the village of Mymensingh (present Bangladesh). India’s famous physicist and plant physiologist Bose has written his experience and research in his books.

Some of the major books are – Reactions of living and nonliving (1902), Reaction of plants (1906), Motivational mechanics of plants (1926), etc.

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Jagdish Chandra Bose was the first Indian scientist to study radio and microwaves. He proved with his knowledge and invention during the Swadeshi movement that India also has the capability of scientific research and invention. Bose was such a scientist who had brought a revolution in plant research by developing an instrument like the Cresco graph. They used wireless communication by radio waves before the scientist Marconi.

Jagdish Chandra Bose Contribution

Basu’s contribution is significant in the functioning of microwave ovens including various communication media, such as radio, television, radar, remote sensing. Today the whole world considers Bose as the co-inventor of the radio along with Marconi for his pioneering work in wireless communication.

Bose found a way to produce very small waves, and also developed an advanced form of Heinrich Hertz’s receiver. After some time, everyone was surprised to know that before Marconi’s wireless receiver was invented, Jagdish Chandra Bose had discovered it. Bose had used wireless communication by radio waves in the year 1885, even before Marconi’s discovery.

Bose created such an instrument, which could generate micro-waves from 25 millimeters to 5 millimeters. The device was so small that it could be carried anywhere in a small box. He showed a completely new type of radio wave at that time to the world, which was from one centimeter to five millimeters. Bose was the first to show that electromagnetic waves can reach a distant place with the help of air.

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These waves can also control an action from another place. His concept later became the theoretical basis for remote control systems.

Many microwave devices in use today like wave guides, polarizers, dielectric lenses, semiconductor detectors for electromagnetic radiation.  All these devices were invented and used by Bose in the last decade of the nineteenth century. It was Bose who told the existence of electromagnetic radiation coming from the Sun, which was confirmed in 1944. Bose has been inducted into its ‘Wireless Hall of Fame’ by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers for his work.

Bose has made unprecedented contributions in the field of plant science. Bose studied the effect of electrical signals on plant cells. His experiments were pointing to the fact that all plant cells have sense. Action potentials can be generated in plants due to cold, heat, cutting, touch and electrical stimulation as well as external moisture.

He created sensitive instruments that could record even the most subtle biological actions of plants at the physical, chemical, mechanical or electrical level. From the year 1901, Bose used Chui-mui (Touch me not) or Mimosa pudica and Shalparni or Desmon diumgyrens for his experiments. If you touch the leaves of Mimosa, they start bending towards each other.

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Bose used a pulsation recorder to compare the electrical pulse of the Dismodiumgyrans with the recorded heart rate of the organism. Bose himself made a very sensitive device to measure the slow growth of plants. He named this instrument the Cresco graph. This device had the ability to automatically record the growth of the plant by increasing it ten thousand times.

Basu showed that plants feel pain just like us. If plants are cut or poison is put in them, then they also suffer and they can even die. Another study area that attracted Basu was the uptake of water in plants from roots to stems and leaves. The water that plants absorb also contains many types of carbon and inorganic elements. The climbing of this water mixture in plants is called “ascent of sap”. 

Jagdish Chandra Basu laid the foundation for the study of the effect of time on plant growth and other biological functions, a branch of science known as chronobiology.

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